Decarbonising the energy system requires a fundamental transformation in the way societies provide, transport and consume energy. Disagreement exists over how this system should look in 2050. The large-scale expansion of low-carbon electricity, phase-out of unabated fossil fuels, and widespread direct electrification are uncontroversial. In more controversial areas, like the deployment of hydrogen and synthetic methane, policy should forcefully explore options and be willing to accept and learn from failures. This report discusses concrete policy options for doing so.
This document was provided by the Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies at the request of the committee on Industry, Research and Energy (ITRE).