This study brings together work in progress on a long-term project to identify and analyse the ‘cost of non-Europe’ in a number of policy fields. This concept, first pioneered by the European Parliament in the 1980s, is used here to quantify the potential efficiency gains in today’s European economy from pursuing a series of policy initiatives recently advocated by Parliament – from a wider and deeper digital single market to better coordinated national and European policies for defence and development. The benefits may be measured principally in additional GDP generated or a more rational use of public resources. The latest analysis suggests that the European economy could be boosted by almost 1.6 trillion euro per year – or 12 per cent of EU-28 GDP (2014) – by such measures over time. The study is intended as a contribution to the on-going discussion about the European Union’s policy priorities over the current five-year institutional cycle, from 2014 to 2019.